Terminology - Glossary J

Term Definition

JAMES – (Epistle of James) –This letter is purported to have been written by James, the brother of the Lord and head of the Church at Jerusalem, to Jewish Christians in the diaspora. He assumes knowledge of the Gospel on the part of his readers and is concerned to remind them how Christians ought to… Read More


JEREMIAH – One of the books known as the prophetical  books of the Old Testament. This book contains the words of Jeremiah the Prophet which he dictated to his aide, Baruch. His ministry began in 627 B.C. and ended some time after 580, probably in Egypt. The Prophet is much concerned with rewards and punishments,… Read More


JESUS – The name “JESUS” means Savior. (See: JESUS CHRIST)


JESUS CHRIST –  Son of God, the Second Person of the Holy Trinity, Who became man for our sakes. The Word, begotten of the Father from all eternity, Who took flesh and was born of the Virgin Mary by the power of the Holy Ghost; Who lived in Galilee and Judea, preached the Kingdom of God, did miracles and established the Church; Who suffered and died on the cross for the sins of mankind. He was buried and on the third day rose from the dead, and forty days later ascended into Heaven where He now sits at the right hand of the Father. He is the Way, the Truth and the Life for all Christians.


JESUS PRAYER – A short prayer that the Orthodox constantly repeat to practice devotion to God; the tradition of repeating this distinctive prayer was developed in Orthodox monasteries. The text of Jesus’ Prayer is: Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me.


JEW – Originally one of God’s chosen people who followed the covenant given to Moses by God. In the Old Testament, the Jews are (1) citizens of Judah; (2) the post exilic people of Israel; or (3) the worshipers of Yahweh. God chose the Jews to prepare the way for the coming of the Messiah,… Read More


JIBEE (RIASA) – The black flowing robe worn by the clergy (different than the cassock).


JOB – One of the books known as the Doctrinal books of the Old Testament. The book of Job is concerned with the problem of suffering in the world. It does not attempt to explain the mystery of suffering or to justify the ways of God with men, but rather aims to probe the depths… Read More


JOEL – One of the books known as the prophetical books of the Old Testament. This book was written by a Prophet, Joel, the son of Pethuel, who lived in Judah during the Persian period, probably from 400-350 B.C. He views a locust plague which ravished the country as God’s punishment on His people and… Read More


JOHN – (Gospel of Saint John) – This Gospel, by the Beloved Disciple, speaks of the Mystery of the Person of Jesus. He is like other men, yet quite unlike them, for He was the Son of God. He was eternally present with God, active in creating the world, and was the source of the… Read More


I JOHN (First Epistle of St. John) – This letter, written toward the end of the 1st Century A.D., has traditionally been attributed by the Church to St. John the Evangelist. The letter has a two-fold purpose: 1) to deepen the spiritual life of its readers (1:3-4), and 2) to correct the heretical views of… Read More


II JOHN (Second Epistle of St. John) – This letter was written to one specific Church, the elect lady (vs. 1), probably one of the Churches of Asia Minor. Like the first letter of John, it too was written by St. John the Evangelist late in the 1st Century. Here he repeats in briefer form… Read More


III JOHN (Third Epistle of St. John) – This is a personal letter of John to Gaius, focusing on an ecclesiastical problem regarding traveling teachers. Gaius had extended to them hospitality, while Diotrephes, who liked to put himself first (vs. 9), had refused to receive them, challenging the spiritual authority of the Elder (John) (vs…. Read More


JOHN OF THE LADDER, SUNDAY OF – The Fourth Sunday of Lent is dedicated to St John of the Ladder (Climacus), the author of the work, The Ladder of Divine Ascent. The abbot of St Catherine’s Monastery on Mount Sinai (6th century) stands as a witness to the violent effort needed for entrance into God’s… Read More


JONAH – One of the books known as the prophetical books of the Old Testament. The prophecy of Jonah and his three days in the belly of a great fish comprise one of the most-remembered of the books of the Prophets indeed, our Lord uses this image concerning his own three days and nights in… Read More


JOSHUA (Jesus the son of Navi) – One of the books known as the historical books of the Old Testament.   The book of Joshua is the story of the Conquest of the Promised Land. The story opens with the passage of the Jordan River and the sack of Jericho (Ch. 1-6); it then tells how… Read More


JOY – Long term satisfaction, something positive to be anticipated in the future.


JUDAIZING – The name of a heresy saying Christians should become Jews first or more Jewish. A movement in Novgorod and Moscow (Russia) at the end of the 15th c. that included translations of biblical books only from the Hebrew. The “Judaizers” were led by Zechariah (Slavic: Skharia), probably a Crimean Karaite Jew, who taught… Read More


JUDAS ISCARIOT – This disciple, forever a symbol of treachery, the son of Simon, was from the town of Kerioth (from Kerioth Iscariot). According to the Gospel, he stole from the common treasury of which he had charge (John 12:5-6) and ultimately betrayed his Lord for thirty pieces of silver (Matt. 26:14-15). After the Crucifixion… Read More


JUDE ( Epistle of St. Jude) -This letter, written about 80 A.D., by Jude, the brother of James and the Lord, was set forth to warn against false teachers (Gnostics) who had made their way into the Church, characterized here as being immoral (vs. 4, 7,16) and covetous (vs. 11,16), and rejecting authority (vs. 8,11)…. Read More


JUDGE –  (an appellation or Title of Jesus)  “And he commanded us to preach unto the people, and to testify that it is he which was ordained of God to be the Judge of quick and dead.” Acts 10:42


JUDGES – One of the books known as the historical books of the Old Testament. Despite the initial conquest of Palestine, the process of subjugation continued and, in fact, some parts of the country were never conquered. Heroes (Judges) rose up amongst the people in times of crisis, and this book is primarily an account… Read More


JUDGMENT – In the biblical sense, God’s decision on the worthiness of one to enter heaven or to be condemned to hell. Following death, all will be judged, and Christ will return again to confirm that judgment. Because of sin, no one can earn a place in heaven by his own righteousness. However, through Christ,… Read More


JULIAN CALENDAR – The Julian Calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and took force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). It was developed in consultation with the Alexandrian astronomer Sosigenes and was probably designed to approximate the tropical year. It has a regular year of 365 days divided into 12 months,… Read More