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Square Notation (Square-Note Notation, Square Notes)? A five-line staff notation that replaced medieval neumatic notation in Russian church singing of the the second half of the 17th c. In its essential details, Square Notes resembles the staff notation used in Western European sacred and secular music of the 16th-17th c. In the Russian Church, Square Notes was first used in western Ukrainian Heirmologia written at the turn of the 17th c. Completely replacing staffless notation, Square Notes was used in the printed liturgical chant books that began to be published by the Holy Synod in 1772, and continued to be used in chant books until 1917. In contrast to modern-day (round-note) musical notation, the notes of Square Notes are square- and diamond-shaped and are written, as a rule, in alto clef.