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KONDAKARIAN SINGING – One of the types of liturgical singing that arose in Kievan Rus’ following Byzantine models. Kondakarian Singing was by nature quite melismatic and was performed in solo fashion by virtuoso singers, while the congregation sang refrains. It was used to perform kontakia, Communion Hymns, and select verses from the Psalms. Kondakarian Singing and its notation fell from use in the 14th c., although some scholars, e. g., J. von Gardner, believe that certain elements of it survived in the demestvenny chant.